The range of options is broad for structure, style, and complexity in bookbinding. The binding of a book depends greatly upon the contents of a book. The steps involved in making a book depend somewhat on the style of binding being executed. In most cases the steps proceed something like this:
1. Trim book block and end sheet papers to correct size.
2. Fold folios (single sheets) into a section (group of folded sheets) using a bonefolder for crisp folds.
3. Press the folded sections between boards in a nipping press.
4. Using a punching jig, punching trough, and awl, punch holes through the sections to prepare for sewing. The type of sewing depends on the style of book being made.
5. Sew the book. If the book is a non-adhesive structure, (and the covers have been made) no further steps are taken.
6. Prepare the spine of the book. This involves many possible combinations of straightening, rounding, backing, gluing, and adhering of spine linings.
7. Make the case of the book. Cut boards to size, make spine stiffener, cut cover and spine covering materials, glue all pieces of case together.
8. Case in the book. Position the book in the case and glue up end sheets one at a time. Press book firmly in nipping press and allow to dry under light weight.